Saturday, September 11, 2010

Scientific Authorship: Digital Clock With Microcontroller

For The aspires to create a digital clock using microntroller monograph may belong to this I can help you


1.1 Background

Living in the age of globalization, we see this very modern technology competition - the advanced technology offered from various countries such as Japan, USA, Germany, Great Britain, etc., is amazing. In the field of technology they created innovation - new innovations that aim to ease human work one example of innovation that they have done is created a robot that benefits to humans adlah facilitate human work, especially in the field of industry. Thus indirectly from the achievement that they get will help the economy and education sector for their respective countries.

Given this reality the Indonesian government began heavily in creating programs of study, especially for school-based technology is very good if the quality of education improved international level. The goal to improve the quality of education in vocational school is to create the next generations who tanggguh and innovative in their field so that each major impact on the progress of this nation.

Technological advances are intimately associated with the science of electronics. Where science studied electronics at the vocational school-based specialized technology. The basics to intermediate stages were studied in the CMS. In SMK, electronics is divided into two departments of Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Electronics Audio-Video. Here the author not only discusses the Electronics Industry Studies course due to limited knowledge about technique penuls Audio-Video.

Industrial Electronics Engineering is the science that studies the basic principles of machinery - industrial machinery based controllers. The basic principles learned in vocational technology especially in the demanding science writer, the science microcontrollers and PLCs (Programmable Logic Contrloller). Microcontroller is the study of logic-based control, while the PLC is a digital electronic devices consisting of programmable memory that can store programs to perform specific functions such as arithmetic logic etc.. Both science is now very grown rapidly because it helps people work in the field of technology, the development of this science is used in two different places even though the same - each based controller. Eg science untik programmed microcontroller used electronic equipment to be run in accordance with the expected pemogram (maker), for example robots.

And microcontroller used more for a tool - a smaller electronic devices while the PLC is used to program the machine - industrial machine that looks big and the results of that program later on industrial machines will work and produce a product, from the above discussion of the electronics industry , the author will discuss about the implementation microntroller in electronics equipment that will produce a product.

1.2 Limitation Problem

Because the scope of Industrial Electronics Engineering is very broad and therefore the writer will limit the issues to be raised this time is about micsrontroller-based digital clock. This problem due to limited restrictions on penerapn microcontroller writer in equipment - electronic equipment sharing. Another reason why the author chose the microcontroller based digital clock, because in addition could be useful in seahri-day life is not too difficult to make.
Digital clock circuit that we will create will be supported this time as the IC program AT89C2051 IC, IC 7447 as a seven segment decoder, and IC 74 138 which is usually used as a chip selector this time functioned as a segment selector. Switch SW2 and SW3 are used to setting up time, both switches are diseri with LED indicator for when the button is pressed
Why do I use the IC AT89C2051 AT89S51 and do not use IC?, the answer is because the IC AT89C2051 are cheaper and in the manufacture of a digital clock port that is used only only 2 ports are so well suited when using the IC of this type because it also has 2 ports, while the IC price AT89S51 a little more expensive and has 4 ports so that when used will be wasteful later. To limit the problem if sufficient, will be discussed further dipenerapan theory.

1.3 Objectives

From the discussion above on Industrial Electronics Engineering and divisions writers have their own objectives in the appointment of topics this time are as follows:

Helping readers not to hesitate in choosing the Industrial Electronics Engineering Department if later after graduating from junior high school went on to vocational school,
For the reader and the application of basic mangenal microcontroller on the device - electronic equipment
Giving directives to the reader to learn how to create a digital clock, and
Help broaden the reader about the Electronics Industry

2.1 Introduction to Tools

To make our project this time, we definitely need a tool - electronic devices that are typically used in implementing the project. The tool - a tool that is as follows:

AVO Meter (Multimeter)
Solder and position;
Atractor (Vacuum Tin)
Trim and taper Tang Tang
Screwdriver (+) & (-)
Knife Cutter

2.2 How to Use Tools

From the tool - a tool that was mentioned above, the tool - the tool also has a procedure for its use so as not to endanger themselves when menggunkaanya. And I give a few tips and tricks in using the tool - the tool is as follows:

AVO Meter (Multimeter)
How good pengguanaan AVO meters ie when we want to measure teggangan AC (Alternating Current), which is not known how many think - about the voltage that flows, you should use a selector that exist in AVO meters on the highest scale in the measurement of ACV. And if we want to measure the voltage at point selector circuit to the DCV, and select the range (limit of measurement) that is easy to read when the measurement.

How to use ie use the right hand to hold the solder and slightly tilted when soldering. And clean occasionally with pasta and do not forget to put in the position of the solder so as not to injure the body if it is located disembarang place.

Atractor (Vacuum Tin)
Used to siphon tin that has been attached to the PCB board, how to place the lead near the end of the vacuum that will be vacuumed and then preheat the tin after tin tin melts and then suction is not to existing copper on the PCB is disconnected.

Trim and taper Tang Tang
Used for cutting Kable or excessive foot component, do the same with the other forceps.

Screwdriver (+) and (-)
Used to open secrup (bolts), how to choose a screwdriver in accordance with the bolts that will be released after that position the screwdriver stuck in the bolt head and rotate left kearaj to release it.

Knife Cutter
Used to cut just as Kable and others, how would you know not.

2.3 How to Care Equipment

Once we know how to use equipment - electronic equipment that it's good we also know how to care for these tools is not easily damaged, ie do the following:

Use the box (box) for storing a tool - the tool and do not forget to set up routed to make it look neat.
Do not forget to clean before inserting it into boxes and cleaned once in a while when visible dust is attached to the tool - the tool.
Place in a dry place so as not to wet with water if exposed to these tools will rust and can cause the appliance is damaged,
And do not forget to keep out of reach of minors as a tool - a tool that could endanger the safety of the child.


3.1 Equipment and Materials

If we want to implement our project, we first must identify the tools and materials we will use later on because it correlates with the budget and our ability to provide these tools. And now the author will present the necessary materials for this project is as follows:

Type Part Number
Resistor 1 K 8 pieces
Capacitor 1 UF 1 pc
Cristall 12 Mhz 1 pc
Capacitor 30 pF 2 pieces
IC AT89C2051 1 pc
Resistor 120 Ohm 2 pieces
IC 7447 1
Transistor 9012 6
IC 74 138 1 piece
SIP Connector 2 Pin 4 pieces
LED 3 pieces
Seven Segment 6 units
Total: 31 pieces

Above are the amount and type of components to be used and as for additional equipment that will be used are as follows:

NO Equipment and Materials Information
1 Chemicals FeSO3 As a solvent to remove copper that attach to the PCB board
2 BOR to pierce PCB board according to predetermined position
3 Liquid thinner used to clean the marker is still attached to the PCB board
4 Sand (sand paper) to smooth the PCB board that has been dissolved.
5 Tin To glue the component with the PCB board and with the help of solder
6 Permanent OHP Markers F / M To draw the PCB layout
7 PCB size 20x20 cm As a container for components that will be installed.
Paper 8 Millimeter To draw a sketch first lay out
9 Complete Stationary To lay out on paper drawing millimeters
10 Containers To dissolve the PCB board with the help of chemicals FeSO3
11 Downloader To download software that will be created.
12 Personal Computer To make downloading software and assist in

Nb: The measure or dose of materials used as required.

3.2 Work Step

Once we identify the tools and materials we will use now the author will provide a means or step in making our project work this time. You can follow the steps - the steps below to make the project this time:

Make lay out a series of pictures a digital clock that is provided by the author on the paper millimeters,
After that move the image layout that you created into the Board by using permanent OHP markers F / M,
Once transferred to the PCB and PCB with chemicals dissolved FeSO3 and premises sufficient water assistance,
After dilarut until the missing copper unnecessary then clean with water and then do not forget easily sanded for tin in the copper tape on the PCB board,
After cleaning the PCB board is now drilling in accordance with the layout of the components that you specify,
Then install and solderlah all components except the IC AT89C2051 enough socket just installed first,

We will make the software from our digital clock, but before that all we do we download the software to compliernya in, after you download save it on your computer partition.
Now we make the software by making programs that will be attached listing the author, the way the authors provide copylah software and paste in notepad then simpanpan with the extension. ASM and compiler software is stored in a folder that you downloaded earlier,

After you create the software earlier today we compile files that have a HSA was inside the folder the compiler, the compiler how to use the software please taught myself yes, compile the results will appear in the folder but have differences in the extension of the extension. HEX and. LST
After that we will download the software with the help downloader you have before you learn your dowanloader mengggunakannya,
The file will be downloaded is a file extension. HEX because only files that can be downloaded,
Once downloaded install AT89C2051 IC into the socket, once installed you can try it now if this project succeeds or not, so I hope you can succeed, but if you get the failure to try to find the problem and then fix it and test again until successful.

3.1 work
The picture of the results we produce works that would later is like the picture below and the other one is a picture series.

; Kepala Program

Mov P3,#0ffh
Jnb P3.4,Set_Jam
Jnb P3.5,Set_Menit
Sjmp Mulai
Jam Equ 10h
Menit Equ 11h
Detik Equ 12h
Sep20 Equ 13h
Org 00h
Sjmp Start
Org 20h
Sjmp Pro_Jam
; Program Utama #####################
Start: Call Tunda
; Beri Kesempatan Ic Lain Reset
Mov Sp,#70h
; Menentukan Posisi Awal Stack Pointer
Call Init_Time
Mov A,#0
Mov Sep20,A
Mov Jam,A
Mov Menit,A
Mov Detik,A ;Nilai Awal
Ulang: Call Display
Sjmp Ulang

;Akhir Program Utama #################
;Program Jam
Pro_Jam: Push Psw
Push Acc
Jnb P3.4,Set_Jam
Jnb P3.5,Set_Menit
Mov Th0,#4bh
Mov Tl0,#0ffh ;Isi Ulang Th/Tl
Inc Sep20
Mov A,#20
Cjne A,Sep20,Pro_Jamn
Inc Detik
Mov Sep20,#0
Mov A,#60
Cjne A,Menit,Pro_Jamn

Set_Menit: Inc Menit
Mov Detik,#0 ;Kosongkan Detik
Mov A,#6o
Cjne A,Menit,Pro_Jamn
Set_Jam: Inc Jam
Mov Menit,#0 ;Kosongkan Menit
Mov A,#24
Cjne A,Jam,Pro_Jamn
Mov Jam,#0
Pro_Jamn: Pop Acc
Pop Psw
;Program Display
Display: Push Psw
Push Acc
Mov A,Jam
Mov B,#10
Div Ab
Orl A,#00h
Mov P1,A
Call Tunda
Mov A,B
Mov A,#10h
Mov P1,A
Call Tunda
Mov A,Menit
Mov B,#10
Div Ab
Orl A,#20h
Mov P1,A
Call Tunda
Mov A,B
Orl A,#30h
Mov P1,A
Call Tunda
Mov A,Detik
Mov B,#10
Div Ab
Orl A,#40h
Mov P1,A
Call Tunda
Mov A,B
Orl A,#50
Mov P1,A
Call Tunda
Pop Acc
Pop Psw
;Inisialisasi Timer 50 Milli Detik = 1/20 Detik
Init_Time: Push Psw
;Ie 0 0 S T1 I1 T0 I0 Reg Interupsi
;1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Mov Ie,#10000010b
;Aktifkan Interupsi Timer0
;- - - S T1 I1 T0 I0 Reg Interrupt Priority
;0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Mov Ip,#02h ;Prioritaskan Timer0
;G1 C/T1 M1.1 M0.1 G0 C/T0 M1.0 M0.0 Reg Tmod
; 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Mov Tmod,#01h ;Aktifkan Mode 1 Timer0
Mov Th0,#4bh
Mov Tl0,#0ffh ;Isi Reg. Tx=19455=4bffh
; T=11,059200/12 (65535-19455)
; T=921600/46080=20
;Tf1 Tr1 Tf0 Tr0 Ie1 It1 Ie0 It0 Reg Timer Control
Setb Tcon.4 ;Set Tcon.4 (Tr0)
Pop Psw
;Program Tunda
Tunda: Push Psw
Push Dph
Push Dpl
Mov Dpl,#12
Tun1: Mov Dph,#250
;Lama Tunda 250x12=3000 Cycle
Tun2: Djnz Dph,Tun2
Djnz Dpl,Tun1
Pop Dpl
Pop Dph
Pop Psw


4.1 Conclusion

From the results of the discussions that have been the author explained above, the authors can conclude as follows:

In Industrial Electronics Engineering, there are some preformance in the field of controlling the distribution of knowledge among the microcontroller and PLC,
In the development of microcontroller and PLC technologies are very powerful and useful,
Microcontroller science that teaches about controlling the goods - electronic goods such as robots and digital watches,
Microcontroller in its application to control most electronic equipment easier and simple,
A digital clock was also able to be made with the help of microcontroller and using IC AT89C2051.

4.2 Suggestions and Feedback

In making this monograph the author realizes there are still many deficiencies - deficiencies contained in this monograph, because there is no ivory that is not cracked, criticism and suggestions for improvement of this monograph the authors looked forward to, and the author would like to thank all those who have helped in solving this monograph. This monograph may be useful for everyone, amen. Thank you.


Ruwano, Guevara Hino, Working with AT89C2051 microcontroller, publishers, PT. Elex Media Komputindo
Setiawan, Sulhan. Easy and Fun Learning microcontroller, publisher, Andy Yogyakarta.
Personal notebook

scientific work
"digital watchmaking"


NAME: Riwandy Septiansyah
Class: xii ei 2

SMK Negeri 2 Pekanbaru
Jl.pattimura no.14
Tp. 2009/2010


tiiqa_yankazero said...

hmm... interesting article...

Riwandy Septiansyah said...

makasih ya kak,,,,


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